Govt. News




“Every step…towards…democracy is an advance towards destruction…Liberty has never yet lasted long in a democracy; nor has it ever ended in anything better than despotism.” (1801)

            Fisher Ames (1758-1808; Congressman from Massachusetts)


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“Our Republic was never created to be a leveler of men. It was created to be a lifter, a developer of men.

            Our Republic was created to let the gifted, the energetic, and the creative rise to new heights of achievement, and to let each man find his own level on the stairway of existence.

            Our Republic was created to encourage men to meet their personal responsibilities and to shirk no public duties. That is why our people have always been concerned about the honest needs of their fellow citizens, the chief of these needs being liberty, justice, and opportunity.

            Our Republic demands that the nation be governed by the capable, the honorable, the far-seeing, the clear-seeing, and not by mediocre men. In the beginning it was so. May it be so again!

            Our Republic demands more from men than any other system in the realm of self-discipline, dependability, cooperativeness, industry, thrift, and honor. For anyone to foster class consciousness, class conflict, misrepresentation, covetousness, violence, theft, and an open defiance of established law – even when done ‘legally’ – is to breed anarchy and tyranny.

Our Republic was not designed to interfere with the unalienable right of its people to be masters of their own destinies.

            Our Republic was established to make men free!”

            (Author unknown)


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((Ed. Note: The author is referring below to sections of War Department Training Manual TM 2000-25)) “Opposite are three facsimile section reproductions taken from a 156-page book officially compiled and issued by the U.S. War Department, Nov. 30, 1928, setting forth exact and truthful definitions of a Democracy and of a Republic, explaining the difference between both. These definitions were published by the authority of the United States Government and must be accepted as authentic in any court of proper jurisdiction.

            These precise and scholarly definitions of a Democracy and a Republic were carefully considered as a proper guide for U.S. soldiers and U.S. citizens by the Chief of Staff of the United States Army. Such definitions take precedence over any ‘definition’ that may be found in the present commercial dictionaries which have suffered periodical ‘modification’ to please ‘the powers in office’.

            Shortly after the ‘bank holiday’ in the [19]30’s, hush-hush orders from the White House suddenly demanded that all copies of this book [Ed. Note: Training Manual 2000-25] be withdrawn from the Government Printing Office and the Army posts, to be suppressed and destroyed without explanation.”

(Author unknown)


((Ed. Comments:

(1) When “liberal” politicians (i.e., “socialists”) took over the reigns of power within the U.S. Government back in the 1930s, they decided that truthful, patriotic documents (such as Training Manual 2000-25) “had to go”.

(2) Our founding fathers gave us a CONSTITUTIONAL REPUBLIC – a form of government that was to be strictly limited by the “chains” of the U.S. Constitution (and its “Bill of Rights”). No matter what the “social-change agents” say or write, it does not alter the fact that the United States was founded as a REPUBLIC, and not as a democracy!))

((Ed. Note: The previous two sets of “author unknown” quotations were taken from a sheet prepared by “The Network of Patriotic Letter Writers”.))


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((Ed. Comment: Please carefully read and study the following excerpts from a Training Manual (TM 2000-25; dated Nov. 30, 1928) that taught our servicemen and servicewomen the truth about “republics” and “democracies”. Sadly, on the orders of the Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) administration, this outstanding Training Manual was “withdrawn” and destroyed. Question: Why did the FDR administration destroy this outstanding training manual?))

U.S. ARMY Training Manual, TM 2000-25, War Department, Washington [D.C.], November 30, 1928; C.P. Summerall, Major General, Chief of Staff)



Prepared under direction of the Chief of Staff


The use of the publication “The Constitution of the United States”, by Harry Atwood, is by permission and courtesy of the author.

((Ed. Note: TM 2000-25; Sections 118-121))




   A government of the masses.

   Authority derived through mass meeting or any other form of ‘direct’ expression.

   Results in mobocracy.

   Attitude toward property is communistic – negating property rights.

   Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall regulate, whether it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or regard to consequences.

   Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy.


   Authority is derived through the election by the people of public officials best fitted to represent them.

    Attitude toward property is respect for laws and individual rights, and a sensible economic procedure.

   Attitude toward law is the administration of justice in accord with fixed principles and established evidence, with a strict regard to consequences.

   A greater number of citizens and extent of territory may be brought within its compass.

   Avoids the dangerous extreme of either tyranny or mobocracy.

   Results in statesmanship, liberty, reason, justice, contentment, and progress.

   Is the ‘standard form’ of government throughout the world.

((Ed. Note: This following quote from Harry Atwood is then listed in the Training Manual.) 

   A republic is a form of government under a constitution which provides for the election of (1) an executive and (2) a legislative body, who working together in a representative capacity, have all the power of appointment, all power of legislation, all power to raise revenue and appropriate expenditures, and are required to create (3) a judiciary to pass upon the justice and legality of their governmental acts and to recognize (4) certain inherent individual rights.

   Take away any one or more of those four elements and you are drifting into autocracy. Add one or more to those four elements and you are drifting into democracy. – Atwood

  1. Superior to all others. – Autocracy declares the divine right of kings; its authority can not be questioned; its powers are arbitrarily or unjustly administered.

   Democracy is the ‘direct’ rule of the people and has been repeatedly tried without success.

   Our Constitutional fathers, familiar with the strength and weakness of both autocracy and democracy, with fixed principles definitely in mind, defined a representative republican form of government. They made a very marked distinction between a republic and a democracy, and said repeatedly and emphatically that they had founded a republic.”

((Ed. Note: The above information on Training Manual 2000-25 was taken from a sheet published by “The Network of Patriotic Letter Writers”.))


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By former U.S. Senator Margaret Chase Smith, R-Maine

(Published in “The Woman Constitutionalist”, February 6, 1965)

((NOTE: All emphasis is by the Editor of TTT.))

            “We talk a great deal about our American government being a democracy. It is said that we fought two World Wars within a generation to ‘make the world safe for democracy’.

            Yet, do we know what we are talking about?

            You may be surprised to know that our government is not a true democracy. It is a REPUBLIC. If you doubt this, take a look at the Constitution. Try to find the word ‘democracy’ or ‘democratic’. Then take a look at Article IV, Section 4, which says, ‘The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a REPUBLICAN Form of Government

            If you read the first ten amendments to the Constitution, these amendments being more popularly recognized as ‘The Bill of Rights’, you will see that they directly flout [Ed. Note: mock, scoff at] the theory of democracy.

            Now what is the difference between a democracy and a republic – what are we instead of what some of us think we are?

            A ‘democracy’ is a truly representative government in which the supreme power is retained by the people and exercised by them. So is a ‘republic’. But a ‘republic’, such as ours, is a restricted and limited democracy. ((Ed. of TTT Comment: I believe this could have better been worded: “But a republic, such as ours, is a restricted and limited democratic form of government – it is strictly limited by the ‘chains of the U.S. Constitution’.”))

            The basic distinction between democracy and republic is in the degree of majority rule. Majority rule is unrestricted in a democracy, while it is restricted in a republic.

            ‘The Bill of Rights’ part of our Constitution places definite limitations on the power of the representatives of the people. They are denied the power to abridge our freedom of speech, right of assembly, press, trial by jury, against unreasonable searches and seizures, and other individual rights – regardless of how much the majority might be opposed to such individual rights. Under a pure or true democracy, there is no protection of such individual rights against the rule of the majority.

            Democracy actually means unrestricted majority rule that our Constitution so carefully prohibits. We are inclined to think of democracy in the social sense rather than [in] the political sense. We think of it as signifying equality among human beings. This ideal we do find expressed in the Declaration of Independence with the statement that ‘all men are created equal’. But the ideal is even more basic than the Declaration of Independence. It is in reality the Christian concept of the Golden Rule.

            So there is good reason to distinguish between [social] democracy and political democracy. By the sheer unrestricted rule of the majority of a political democracy, social democracy could be killed without any protection whatsoever to the minorities.

            A republic is a truly representative government. It provides representation for the minority as well as the majority. It places individual freedom and rights above majority rule. If we were really a political democracy, instead of the republic we are, the will of the majority would habitually ride roughshod over the will of the minority. A republic creates and develops tolerance that acts as a bulwark against tyranny by the majority.

            The United States Senate, in which I have the honor to serve, is striking proof that our government is not a democracy but a republic. New York with a population of several million people has no more representation in the Senate than my State of Maine which has a population of less than a million people. Both states have two Senators each. This is a check against unlimited majority rule for the protection of the ‘minority population’ states.

            In short, a republic rather than a democracy is the American way simply because this country was settled and founded upon the love for liberty and individual freedom. Our republic protects our very rights to our beliefs even though we be in the minority. It protects differences of opinion.”



            Why should the editor of “Tackling the Tough Topics (TTT)” do a two-part series on the topic of “Republic versus Democracy”? Is this topic really important for the times in which we live?

Editor of TTT strongly believes that this topic is extremely important! I hadn’t planned on doing a two-part series on this topic; however, I received a mailing recently from a dear lady in Ohio that contained both former Senator Margaret Chase Smith’s paper entitled “Our Republic – Bulwark Against the Tyranny of Majorities” and actual excerpts from Training Manual 2000-25. I typed both of these documents in the “quotations” section of this newsletter.

In the earlier TTT newsletter on this topic (TTT #42, dated: April 3, 2004), I listed many quotations by our founding fathers that showed clearly that they HATED “democracy” as a form of government, and that they therefore gave us a limited CONSTITUTIONAL REPUBLIC! Two of those quotations were by U.S. presidents (Thomas Jefferson and James Madison). Thomas Jefferson said that our founding fathers had produced “a near perfect REPUBLIC”. James Madison added that “Democracies[were] incompatible with personal security or the rights of property[and had been] as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths.”   Indeed, not a small number of our founding fathers warned us about the danger of losing our republic and “sliding down into the mire of democracy, which pollutes the morals of citizens before it swallows up their liberties”. ((NOTE: Preceding quotation was by Fisher Ames, a former Congressman from Massachusetts.))

Again, my main reason for this “Part II” was to make available to the readers of the TTT newsletters Senator Smith’s paper and the Training Manual 2000-25 excerpts. They speak for themselves without any further commentary by this editor. Please carefully consider the words found in those writings, and let us all get involved in correcting this “LIE” that America is a “democracy”! For if we don’t, then our children and grandchildren will grow up in a land where the “mob rules” rather than “the Law rules” – and all their liberties will disappear!



  1. Please make copies of this TTT newsletter (and the earlier TTT #42 if you have it) and give both of them to others (especially to teachers, leaders in veterans’ organizations, politicians, government bureaucrats, and other elected officials, etc.).
  2. We need to go to our local libraries and read (and study) the OLD textbooks on American history and civics (i.e., “the branch of political science that deals with civic affairs and the duties and rights of citizenship” – per Webster’s Dictionary).
  3. We absolutely must ensure that our public schools get back to “basics”, and start using (once again) the OLD textbooks on American history and civics!
  4. We all must pray that Almighty God would raise up godly statesmen who revere the U.S. Constitution (and its wonderful “Bill of Rights”) to take the place of many of the ignorant and misguided politicians in America today!
  5. When election time rolls around, we should vote only for those candidates who have a good understanding of the Constitution, and who are willing to ‘protect and defend’ it.


The Light and the Glory and From Sea to Shining Sea – both books are joint efforts by Peter Marshall and David Manuel. Both cover American history from a Christian perspective; the first book from 1600 to 1783, and the second book from 1783 to 1865. Both are published by Fleming H. Revell; their respective ISBNs are: 0-8007-5054-3 and 0-8007-5308-9. Both books should be available through most large bookstore chains or on the Internet.

“I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the REPUBLIC for which it stands”